NOTE: This was transcribed by Vicki Walker. Thank you Vicki! :-)

ANNOUNCER: We present Clement Freud, Peter Jones, Aimi Macdonald and Patrick Moore in Just a Minute. And as the Minute Waltz fades away, here to tell you about it is our chairman, Nicholas Parsons.

NICHOLAS PARSONS: Thank you very much! Hello and ah welcome to Just a Minute. And begin the show with our oldest regular, Clement Freud. And the subject, Clement, is how to stop snoring. Can you tell us something about that in 60 seconds, starting now.

CLEMENT FREUD: In order to stop snoring, you have to start snoring, which is comparatively easy if you block your nostrils with cotton wool or old pieces of newspaper, and ideally clamp a handkerchief between your teeth or perhaps force it down your gullet. You then stop snoring quite simply by removing these impedimentia. And you will become a very much more worthwhile person. Um...


NP: Uh, Aimi Macdonald has challenged.

AIMI MACDONALD: Uh, hesitation. He went "um."

PETER JONES: And if you stuffed all that up your nostrils and this handkerchief down your gullet, you really would never be able to do anything again!

NP: So why didn't you challenge on that, Peter?

PJ: Well, I thought I'd give him an... inch or whatever they say.

NP: Yes, give him a, give him a chance. A little bit of encouragement.

PJ: Yes.

NP: Aimi Macdonald, I agree with your challenge, so you get a point for that. You take over the subject of how to stop snoring. There are 34 seconds left and you start now.

AM: I'm just, I just, oh. Sorry.


AM: No, listen, can I start again?

NP: And uh Patrick Moore has challenged.

AM: No, no.

PATRICK MOORE: Hesitation, deviation and everything else. Hesitation.

NP: Hesitation.

AM: No, I, I stuttered actually.

NP: I know, and that's hesitation.

PM: Ah, yes.

NP: And you have played the game quite a lot now.

AM: Oh, I couldn't help it, darling. I stuttered.

NP: I know, but that's what the game's all about, isn't it?

PJ: Yes, but that's an impediment. I don't think you ought to penalise...

NP: I think that Patrick has a legitimate challenge, and he has a point for that and he takes over the subject. There are 31 seconds left, Patrick, and the subject is how to stop snoring, starting now.

PM: When you consider how to stop snoring, the first thing to remember is to decide whether in fact youself, ah, you yourself do it.


NP: And, uh, Aimi MacDonald challenged.

AM: He did what I did.

NP: Yes, I know! But you see, having let him get it, now you got it back again. And the subject is how to stop snoring, starting now.

AM: I'm still trying to figure out a way to stop the man upstairs from snoring. This is awfully embarrassing because I have never met him. But he keeps me awake night after... every other time of the day.


NP: And, uh, Peter Jones challenged.

PJ: I was too quick on the draw.

NP: Yes. What...

AM: You, you thought I was going to say night after night. Yes, and I didn't. Ha ha!

PJ: Yes, I did. I must admit it did cross my mind.

NP: So you get another point for an incorrect challenge and you have, ah, 13 seconds on how to stop snoring, starting now.

AM: It's terribly boring, you see, because, and I feel it's so unfair simply because...


NP: Ah, Patrick...

PM: Hesitation.

NP: Yes, Patrick. There are seven seconds on how to stop snoring, starting now.

PM: Put that clothespeg over your nose. I feel this is going to be an infallible method to stop snoring even though I myself have never tried it since so far as I know and for the rest of...


NP: Well, Ian Messiter blew his whistle then when 60 seconds is up, and whoever is speaking then, as you probably know, gets an extra point. Peter, the subject, eh, is cornets, and will you start with it in Just A Minute starting now.

PJ: Those wonderful cone-shaped biscuits which I remember as a boy one could buy for a penny, even a half-penny. And they were filled with this luscious ice cream, flavored with vanilla. It was really the most delicious... concoction.


NP: And Patrick Moore has challenged.

PM: Hesitation, I think. "Delicious, er."

NP: No, no. He didn't actually "er." This is one of the tricks they have when they've played a lot, Patrick. They go quite slowly with their speech, searching for the words.

PM: Yes.

NP: But he didn't actually hesitate. But I thought he repeated delicious, but it's too late now. Forty-three seconds on cornets with you still, having got a point, Peter, starting now.

PJ: They're not always easy to eat with style, because if the sun is shining brightly, they're apt to drip.


NP: Uh, Clement Freud.

CF: Deviation. The sun doesn't shine in cinemas.

NP: He never said he was in a cinema!

CF: I imagined it was in a cinema.

NP: Ah. I imagined it was on the beach, you see.

CF: Oh, did you?

NP: You can imagine wherever he's like.

CF: I'm sorry.

NP: It might have...

CF: I was asleep. Didn't he talk about cinemas?

NP: No, he never said cinemas. Come away from the new bill that you're presenting.

AM: He's still snoring!

NP: He's still working how to stop snoring. The, um, 35 seconds, Peter, on cornets with you starting now.

PJ: It was in fact at Mr. Ellis's shop in High Street in Shropshire. There they manufactured it in a small shop at the very back. And when one...


NP: Ah, Clement Freud.

CF: Repetition of shop.

NP: Yes, there was, Clement, and ah you have 25 seconds now to talk about cornets, starting now.

CF: I always remember a very attractive usherette called Emma who worked in a cinema where they were showing a film called Kind Hearts and Cornets which she sold in the interval with all sorts of flavours at prices from 2p up to 12 shillings and ninepence.


NP: And Patrick.

PM: Uh, "Kind Hearts and Coronets" was shown in the, the days of the old coinage. It wasn't p, it was d.

NP: Yes, when it was originally shown. Anyway, Patrick, you have a point and you have nine seconds starting now.

PM: There are, of course, all kinds of cornets. There are ice cream cornets and there are cornets which are played in bands.


NP: Ah, Peter Jones challenged.

PJ: Hesitation.

NP: No, not quite. He goes too quick for that. There are three seconds on cornets, starting now.

PM: And when you listen to a military orchestra marching in state down the...


NP: Oh, Patrick Moore is showing his paces. He's increased his lead at the end of that round and ah, Patrick, it's your turn to begin. The subject is black holes. Will you talk about those in Just A Minute, starting now.

PM: Talking about black holes in Just A Minute is not really an easy task. It would take me a long time indeed to describe these remarkable features in any detail whatsoever. Because if you look up into the sky thousands or even millions of light years away and you try and find a black hole, you will find this is impossible because you cannot...


NP: Clement Freud has challenged.

CF: Repetition of find.

NP: Yes, you were finding too much up there, I'm afraid, Patrick. Uh, Clement, there are 43 seconds left and the subject is black holes, starting now.

CF: If you find it very difficult to stop snoring, then by far the best way is to put cotton wool up those black holes known...


NP: Peter Jones has challenged.

PJ: Deviating.

NP: Why?

PJ: Well, he's, uh, talking about how to stop snoring.

NP: No...

PJ: Admittedly, he dragged in the word "black holes."

NP: And, and to be fair to him, he dragged it in just before you pressed your buzzer.


NP: And they go to... one person agrees with me. Clement, a wrong challenge. You have a point. There are 35 seconds on black holes, starting now.

CF: All towns called Calcutta have black holes where the most awful things happen to people of whom better would be expected. But in the year 1793 in the Indian subcontinent, a man called Patel, which is now a very common name, enjoyed by my news agency...


NP: Ah, Patrick.

PM: Hesitation.

NP: Yes, I agree, yes. He was really searching there, wasn't he? Fifteen seconds on the black holes, Patrick, starting now.

PM: I am not acquainted with Mr. Patel or either of his black holes. I'm much more concerned with those which are visible in the heavens. And ah if you look far enough, you will uh undoubtedly fail to see...


NP: Aimi MacDonald has challenged.

AM: Mmm, hesitation.

NP: I think it's just as well he didn't hesitate! Quite frankly, after his opening remark I lost track of the rest! So I'm going to award him another point and say you have six seconds to continue on the black holes starting now.

PM: Through the telescope of my own observatory, I have yet to see any of these extraordinary things, simply and merely because they ah belong...


NP: Last time Patrick Moore was on the programme, he said in a subject about cricket that he got a great number of ducks when he played the game. He's certainly not getting a duck with Just a Minute this week, he's got a commanding lead at the end of that round! Aimi Macdonald, it's your turn to begin. The subject is the International Date Line. I know you've had a lot of dates in your time. But would you talk about the International Date Line starting now.

AM: Well, the international date line usually begins with... "Ah!"


PM: Hesitation.

AM: No! No, I was, oh no, I, it wasn't an er, it was an ah.

PM: Oh, it was an ah. Isn't an ah and an er the same thing in hesitation?

AM: It was "Ah!"

NP: You don't have to say Ah or er. You just have to pause. That's hesitation.

AM: Yes, but that wasn't what that was...

CF: To ah is human.

NP: And to er...

PM: To er is inhuman.

NP: In, ah, no.

PJ: What a petty challenge, I think, for anybody who's in a commanding lead. I mean, it's...

NP: And...

PM: Oh, you do make me feel frightful! I withdraw.

NP: No, you do not withdraw, Patrick! If you knew how, how, how wicked the regular players of the game are, which includes Peter Jones, you'd know that anything, no quarter is given in this game. And you're not giving any, and uh Aimi's played it more often than you so it's correct. You have 54 seconds on the International Date Line starting now.

PM: The International Date Line is something that runs on the other side of the world. It goes from north to south or any other direction.


NP: Clement Freud has challenged.

CF: Deviation.

NP: Why?

CF: Well, this programme goes out on the other side of the world and people will be confused.

NP: I believe the International Date Line can go from south to north, but that was a very good challenge. But he wasn't deviating from the subject, so give Clement a point for his challenge, and Patrick keeps the subject. And there are 48 seconds left starting now.

PM: It does not, in fact, go through any inhabited country...


NP: Ah, Clement Freud challenged.

CF: Repetition of in fact.

NP: Yes, I'm afraid there was, Patrick. There are 46 seconds, Clement, the International Date Line, starting now.

CF: One of the places the International Date Line almost hits is Fiji. And whenever I pass that island, on the way to either San Francisco or Tokyo, depending which direction the plane decided to fly in, and also what sort of ticket...


NP: Uh, Peter Jones has challenged.

PJ: The plane doesn't make a decision of that kind.

NP: No. I quite agree. Even when the automatic pilot's on...

PJ: Right.

NP: ...somebody's, yes, I quite agree, Peter. But it does illustrate how difficult it is to keep going once you've started in this game. Thirty seconds, the International Date Line, Peter, starting now.

PJ: It is one of the most difficult things to explain or have explained to one.


NP: Uh, Patrick.

PM: Explain.

NP: No, no, he said explain and have explained.

PM: Yes, I thought he did. Only I thought, er, er, I thought I may, I might get away with it.

NP: That's why I...

PJ: God, it's a bit soon to start cheating!

NP: He's certainly tumbled about how to play this game, hasn't he! My goodness me, the stars have no... yes! They're all coming out tonight. Twenty-five seconds on the International Date Line, Peter, starting now.

PJ: You're going along quite happily on a Tuesday and suddenly it's Wednesday.


NP: Ah, Aimi Macdonald challenged.

AM: Oh, that's ridiculous. You can't go along on a Tuesday. It's like going to work on an egg; you can't go to work on an egg either.

NP: You can't go to work on an egg; you can go to work after having an egg. But you can go along happily on a Tuesday. I go along happily doing lots of things on a Tuesday. Somebody knows what I do on a Tuesday over there. Uh, Peter, an incorrect challenge. There are 21 seconds on the International Date Line, starting now.

AM: You used to be my friend.

PJ: Or... Are you interrupting?


AM: Sorry.

NP: Uh, Clement Freud has challenged.

CF: Hesitation.

AM: Oh no, that was my fault. I was a fool.

PJ: That was a foul! It was a foul!

NP: We don't allow fouls, so Peter Jones, you keep the subject. The International Date Line, and we go back to 21 seconds starting now.

PJ: You are proceeding on a Saturday and it's suddenly ...


PM: Deviation. Just now you were proceeding on a Tuesday.

NP: Yeah, but he now proceeds when he comes back in again on a Saturday.

PJ: I was going merrily before.

PM: In that case, I...

PJ: Now I'm proceeding!

PM: You've crossed the International Date Line several times.

PJ: Look, I was there, Moore!

NP: The point was, it's obviously another occasion he wasn't deviating from the subject. He can go over the International Date Line as many times as he'd like within this game. And Peter, you have another point for an incorrect challenge and 16 seconds starting now.

PJ: One always has this fantastic experience, this...


NP: And Aimi Macdonald has challenged.

AM: That was hesitation.

NP: Yes. There are 13 seconds, Aimi, for you on the International Date Line, starting now.

AM: "Ah! Haven't I seen you somewhere before?" is what they usually say, or they can say... oh.


NP: Patrick.

PM: Hesitation.

NP: I'm afraid so, yes. Ah Patrick, there are five seconds on the International Date Line starting now.

PM: When you are traversing the International Date Line, no matter how fast or how slow you are actually proceeding...


NP: Ah, Aimi Macdonald challenged.

AM: He said how fast or how slow.

NP: That is right.

AM: Two hows.

NP: Two hows, correct. And there's half a second, you've got in on the International Date Line, half a second starting now.

AM: Will you please...


NP: Well, a lot of points were scored in that round. Aimi got the extra one for speaking when the whistle went. Patrick Moore's still in the lead but he's being caught up by Peter Jones, Aimi Macdonald and Clement Freud in that order, who are still a few points behind him. Peter, it's your turn to begin. The subject: Ibsen. Would you tell us something about him in just a minute starting now.

PJ: Henrik Ibsen was the great Norwegian scriptwriter who penned such hits as "Ghosts," "An Enemy of the People," "Little Iolf" and many others, including "Peer Gynt." And he lived a long life...


NP: Ah, Patrick Moore.

PM: Hesitation.

NP: Correct. There are 44 seconds for Ibsen with you, Patrick, starting now.

PM: Ibsen to me is always rather a melancholy character.


NP: Uh, Clement Freud has challenged.

CF: Deviation.

NP: Why?

CF: He didn't seem to speak as quickly as he usually does.

NP: Ibsen's melancholy caught up with him. Um, give Clement an extra point for that challenge and leave the subject with Patrick Moore, Ibsen, 40 seconds, starting now.

PM: When reading his plays, one is conscious of a feeling of utter and deep depression. It's rather difficult to say exactly why this should be so, except that personally, I never liked stories of corpses and ghosts and things that go bump in the night. But there was a much pleasanter side to Ibsen. He gave his name to a star cluster. And if you look in the sky, you'll be able to see it. It's in the constellation of Aquella, not very far away from the boundaries of Skutum Sobiesky, which of course contains a very...


NP: Clement Freud has challenged.

PM: ...nebula, which is extremely interesting ... and it is known...

NP: Patrick, just when you got to Aquella, Clement Freud challenged you.

PM: How unpleasant of him.

NP: Clement, what's your challenge?

CF: It's disgusting, isn't it! This is meant to be a family show!

NP: So your challenge, please?

CF: Some of those words he mentioned... I was simply trying to save him!

NP: Well, you didn't. He couldn't be stopped once he got his star bit between his teeth. So Patrick, you continue on your star trek with, after a wrong challenge and there are 13 seconds left starting now.

PM: The object to which I have been referring is the wild duck, and this is made up of extremely faint objects...


NP: Um, Clement Freud has challenged.

CF: Second extremely we've had.

NP: Yes.

PM: Yes.

NP: Unfortunately. Clement, you have Ibsen now, and there are seven seconds left starting now.

CF: He's one of my favorite playwrights and my wife has performed in a number of parts written by him with tremendous success.



NP: I think you were just about to be challenged for nepotism, having brought your wife's activities in again. But, um, it was after the whistle, you gained an extra point for speaking when it went, you're equal with Peter Jones in second place behind Patrick Moore and Aimi Macdonald's only two points behind you both. And Patrick, oh, we're back to the stars again! Ian Messiter's got the subject of Mars here and it's your turn to begin, obviously with that subject, and would you start now.

PM: Mars has of course given its name to some famous bars, though I prefer to return to Mars in its other capacity as that of a planet. A red object in the sky, it was given its name in honor of the god of war many, many years ago...


NP: Uh, Clement challenged.

CF: I'm afraid repetition of many.

NP: Yes, many, many years ago. Very difficult, isn't it? Especially at the speed you go, Patrick. Clement, you have a correct challenge. The subject is Mars. There are 36 seconds left, starting now.

CF: One of my favorite postwar songs has the chorus "Mars, She's Making Eyes at Me." And...


NP: And Aimi Macdonald challenged.

AM: Well, that's not right, is it, because it's "Ma! She's," not Mars.

NP: Yes, but, but, he very cleverly sort of adjusted it.

PJ: And it was a prewar song, as a matter of fact.

NP: Yes.

CF: Depends which war you mean.

NP: And it depends how you sing. Probably the way Clement Freud sings, it would come out like "Mars, He's Making Eyes at Me." So he wasn't actually deviating, Aimi. There are 30 seconds left, Clement, for Mars starting now.

CF: It is also a red cluster in the firmament. And...


NP: Ah, Patrick challenged.

PM: Deviation, it's not a cluster.

CF: It's not in the firmament, it's not red, it's not a cluster.

PM: It is in the firmament. It is definitely not a cluster. It is a planet.

NP: All right, Patrick, you're perfectly correct. I won't argue with you.

CF: It looks to me like a cluster. Is it only like a cluster to me?

NP: There are 25 seconds on Mars, starting now.

PM: Mars is said to have been the world with canals running across its surface, building up a system of waterways conveying liquid from one pole to the other along an entire irrigation network, the like of which has never been seen upon our own earth. This was a theory put forward a long time ago now by the eminent astrologer Percival Lowell, who had his observatory at Flagstaff in Arizona.


NP: Ah, Peter Jones has challenged.

PJ: Ah, repetition of observatory. He talked about his observatory a little while ago.

NP: But not in this particular round. It was the previous round.

PJ: No, we go so fast, you see.

PM: That was when I was trying to get in my explanation about the, the wild duck star cluster.

PJ: Yes.

PM: And I was unfairly prevented from so doing!

PJ: Is this, is this show the right vehicle for you, I ask myself?

NP: I was beginning to wonder whether it was Just a Minute or The Stars at Night? But, um...

PJ: Thank God it isn't The Stars on Sunday, that's all I can say!

NP: And I suppose you have to go pretty fast if sometimes you have to go back 800 million light years. But Patrick, you had a wrong challenge there. And you have five seconds left on Mars, starting now.

PM: Mars is not more than a million light years away...


PM: ...it is a great deal closer.

NP: Um, Clement Freud challenged.

CF: We have had light years before, have we not?

NP: Yes.

PM: Not in this round.

CF: Oh yes, mmm.

PM: Not in the wild duck.

CF: No, no.

PJ: Wasn't that in October?

NP: No, it was in the wild duck when he was on Ibsen. And there are three seconds on Mars, Patrick, starting now.

PM: Possibly...


NP: Ah, Clement Freud challenged.

CF: Hesitation.

NP: Yes, for once Patrick didn't start! Um, Clement, there are two seconds er, one and a half, actually, on Mars starting now.

CF: If you melt in a...


NP: Um, Patrick Moore.

PM: Too slow off the mark.

NP: No, no, he wasn't. There's one second left on Mars, Clement, starting now.

CF: Were you to mark...


NP: Well, a lot of points are being scored in this game, which is always nice. Aimi, we're back with you to start. The subject is if you rick your back. Have you got the subject?

AM: Yes.

NP: You have 60 seconds on if you rick your back, starting now.

AM: This can be a terribly uncomfortable thing to do. And it can happen by simply doing the strangest of things. I mean, you only have to bend over and pick something up and suddenly, bang it goes! And there's nothing you can do about it.


NP: Ah, Peter Jones has challenged.

PJ: There's not normally an explosion when this happens.

NP: So, er yes I think that's a good challenge, but it's not what she did say. There's a bang! And I must say you might hear a click or a crick.

AM: No, I didn't say "there is a bang." I said "and bang!"

NP: Yes, you did, didn't you?

AM: I mean, I could have said "and bump" or anything.

NP: Yes, "and bang." Yes. That is a colloquial phrase, all right, Aimi. I won't allow it. And so you keep the subject and there are 42 seconds on if you rick your back starting now.

AM: I remember the day I did it myself. "Oh dear," she cried. It was on a stage and I was being thrown from one boy to another. And the boy on the other end caught me...


NP: Uh, Clement Freud challenged twice.

CF: Repetition of boy.

NP: The repetition of boy is correct, Clement. You have 29 seconds, if you rick your back, starting now.

CF: I always remember a production of "Any Answers" which had...


NP: Uh, Patrick Moore challenged.

PM: Hesitation, I think.

NP: No, no, that's the normal speed at which he goes, I'm afraid, Patrick. It must seem terribly slow to you! I must say, we've got the two extremes here, haven't we? And they're sitting side by side, I must tell the listeners, and it must be very difficult for them to challenge each other.

PJ: Is Patrick under the impression that he's being paid by the word?

NP: All I can say, even if he isn't, he's giving full value to the game. So well done, Patrick, it was a wrong challenge, (one person claps) and thank you, Mrs Moore. And, um, Clement Freud keeps the subject on 25 seconds left, if you rick your back starting now.

CF: If you rick your back, by far the best thing to do is to go to an osteopath and...


NP: Ah, Aimi MacDonald challenged.

AM: Well, I don't, I don't think it is by far the best thing to do.

NP: No! No, that's open to question.

AM: Yes.

NP: And therefore it's not necessarily the best, but it is something you could do. So Aimi, you have a correct challenge and you have 20 seconds on if you rick your back starting now.

AM: I landed on top of this man who had both arms extended. And the idea was for my legs to relax down into what is commonly known as a split and then to be thrown up in the air again and land on both...


NP: Um, Clement Freud.

AM: I'm landing again, aren't I?

NP: You landed twice, yes, I'm afraid you did. Ah, Clement, there are four seconds left for if you rick your back, starting now.

CF: There are certainly medical people who feel that you should go to...


NP: So Clement Freud then got that extra point speaking when the whistle went. He also got other points in that round, and ah his, his crown of the most wins is at stake so he's caught up on Patrick Moore. They've both got 18 points. A very high scoring game! And ah Clement, it's your turn to begin. The subject is hypnotism. Will you tell us something about that in Just A Minute starting now.

CF: I do know something about hypnotism because some years ago I actually went to a hypnotist who lived, he's now dead, in Harley Street where he practiced in a third floor apartment without a lift. A seedy man with cigarette ash on his cardigan, he met me and fixed me with a beady eye and said, (Cockney accent) "You are very tired. Your eyes are very 'eavy."


NP: And Patrick Moore has...

PM: Repetition of very.

NP: Yes, very is quite, he did say that. What a pity, we'll never know what else he said. It was getting very interesting. There are 35 seconds, Patrick, for you to talk about hypnotism starting now.

PM: I have not myself experienced hypnotism in any positive form. Naturally, there are many stories about it and these I have read, starting when I was a child, and that is a long time ago now. But according to these ah tales, there are two kinds...


NP: Peter Jones has challenged.

PJ: He did say "er, tales."

AM: Yes, that was definite.

NP: In other words, he hesitated.

PJ: Yes.

NP: I quite agree. There are 21 seconds left on hypnotism starting now.

PJ: Well, I've only seen it done in theaters, when the star of the show invites people up onto the stage and then puts them to sleep and makes fun of them, ridicules them, puts them...


NP: Uh, Patrick Moore challenged.

PM: Ah, repetition of them, but it's not in the game.

NP: It is in the game but we're inclined to overlook...

PM: Right.

NP: ...these little challenges.

PM: I'm sorry.

NP: No, no, but you didn't know.

PM: I'm sorry.

NP: And he did say them.

PM: I'm sorry.

NP: And he went slower than you, so I will give it to you, Patrick.

PJ: Yes, he's just a greenhorn ahead by about 10 points, that's all!

NP: And there are 11 seconds for hypnotism, Patrick, starting now.

PM: Hypnotism, as I understand it, is one of those sciences which really defies any proper explanation. Very young children cannot be hypnotized, and the same, I believe, is true of lunatics. In...


NP: I've just had a message that I'm afraid we have no more time to play the game. So let me give you the final score, if you haven't already guessed it. Aimi Macdonald, coming back again, did very well with nine points, only one behind Peter Jones with 10. They were both a way, little way behind Clement Freud, who got 18 points. He stuck at that point. Patrick Moore surged ahead with another flourish and he's won. Congratulations, Patrick Moore. The stars were shining for Patrick Moore this week. We hope you've enjoyed Just a Minute. We hope that you'll want to tune in again at the same time next week when once again we take to the air and we play this enjoyable game. Till then, from all of us here, goodbye.

ANNOUNCER: The chairman of Just a Minute was Nicholas Parsons. The programme was devised by Ian Messiter and produced by John Lloyd.